Posts tagged Duke
Posts tagged Duke
Announcement of titles, 29 April 2011
THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT IS ISSUED BY THE PRESS SECRETARY TO THE QUEEN
The Queen has today been pleased to confer a Dukedom on Prince William of Wales. His titles will be Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus.
Prince William thus becomes His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge and Miss Catherine Middleton on marriage will become Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge.
In 1706 George Augustus (subsequently George II) the only son of George Ludwig, Elector of Hanover (subsequently George I of Great Britain) was created with other titles Duke of Cambridge. On the accession of his father to the throne in 1714 he also became Duke of Cornwall and was created Prince of Wales. On his own accession to the throne in 1727 the Dukedom of Cambridge merged with The Crown and ceased.
Cambridge was previously a Royal Dukedom and four sons of James, Duke of York (afterwards James II) who died in infancy were all created Duke of Cambridge. As an Earldom Cambridge was a medieval Royal title. Edward IV was Duke of York and Earl of Cambridge till proclaimed King of England in 1461 when his titles merged with The Crown.
His father and grandfather both Richard Plantagenet were both Earls of Cambridge and the latter was also Duke of York. Edmund of Langley, 5th son of Edward III and great-grandfather of Edward IV, was created Earl of Cambridge in 1362 and Duke of York in 1385.
The Dukedom of Cambridge created in 1801 became extinct on the death of the 2nd Duke of Cambridge in 1904. Cambridge existed as a Marquessate from 1917 when it was conferred on Queen Mary’s brother till 1981 when the 2nd Marquess died and the title became extinct.
Strathearn has had Royal connections since Robert Stewart, High Steward of Scotland, was created Earl of Strathearn in 1357. In 1371 he succeeded his Uncle as King of Scotland becoming Robert II and the Earldom merged with The Crown Robert II created his 5th son David, Earl of Strathearn in 1371. Subsequently in 1427 the 6th son of Robert II was created Earl of Strathearn.
In 1766 George III’s younger brother Prince Henry Frederick was created
Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn. He died without issue in 1790 and in 1799 Queen Victoria’s father was created Duke of Kent and Strathearn. These Dukedoms became extinct on his death in 1820. Finally, Prince Arthur William Patrick Albert, 3rd son of Queen Victoria was created Duke of Connaught and Strathearn in 1874. He died in 1942 and was succeeded by his grandson who died the following year
1943 since when Strathearn as a title has been extinct.
An Irish Viscountcy of Chichester of Carrickfergus now held by the Marquess of Donegall was created in 1625 but Carrickfergus alone only existed as a title between 1841 and 1883. The 3rd Marquess of Donegall was created Baron Ennishowen and Carrickfergus, of Ennishowen, co: Donegal and Carrickfergus, co: Antrim. He died in 1883 being succeeded by his brother and the Barony became extinct.
Carrickfergus is County Antrim’s oldest town. The word means Rock of Fergus and as an urban settlement it predates Belfast. It is on the north shore of Belfast Lough and is the site of Carrickfergus Castle which dates from circa 1180 and is one of the best preserved Castles in Ireland.
Forget the dress, the jewels, the carriages and the exotic guests. The thing we all want to know is finally out the bag.
This morning, Her Majesty The Queen bestowed upon her grandson, His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales the titles of Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus.
This means that upon their marriage, Kate’s full title will be Her Royal Highness Princess William of Wales, Duchess of Cambridge, Countess of Strathearn and Baroness Carrickfergus. She will invariably be styled HRH The Duchess of Cambridge.
The title ‘Duke of Cambridge’ has been held by six previous royals and has had five previous creations.
Interestingly, the title was held by one of William’s ancestors. Prince Adolphus, seventh son of George III is William’s great-great-great-great-grandfather.
The previous holders of the title are:
Dukes of Cambridge
First Creation (1664
· James Stuart, 1st Duke of Cambridge (1663–1667), second son of James, Duke of York (later James II & VII), died in infancy
Second Creation (1667)
· Edgar Stuart, 1st Duke of Cambridge (1667–1671), fourth son of James, Duke of York (later James II & VII), died in infancy
Third Creation (1706)
· George, Electoral Prince of Hanover, 1st Duke of Cambridge (1683–1760) was the only son of George, Elector of Hanover (later George I), and, in time, would become Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Wales and then King in 1727, at which point all of his British honours merged in the crown
Fourth Creation (1801)
· Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge (1774–1850) was the seventh son of George III
· Prince George, 2nd Duke of Cambridge (1819–1904), only son of the 1st Duke, died without legitimate issue and his honours were extinct
Up until now, I’ve avoided speculating on what title the royal newlyweds will take on Friday, preferring instead to focus on the (what I think is more interesting) question of how a princess by marriage can correctly use the princely style. However, having thought about it (and as you can probably tell, I think about little else than fascinating title-teasing questions) I thought this blog wouldn’t really be worth its name if I didn’t post anything on it.
So…here we go.
The media has focused on a number of vacant ‘royal dukedoms’ that could be bestowed on the couple. It’s worth being clear; there is nothing particularly special about these titles that make them royal; it’s just that they have been held by princes in the past and are therefore generally not ever given to non-royals in future. These titles are:
· Duke of Clarence – The title, first given to Lionel of Antwerp, the third son of King Edward III in 1362, has been held by five people in English and British history, all of them royal. However, it’s most recent holder – Albert Victor, Queen Victoria’s grandson – died prematurely and was linked to scandals around Jack the Ripper. If the Queen gave this to her grandson it would hardly be a good luck charm. That being said, Albert Victor, like William was heir to the heir, so there would be some natural synergy.
· Duke of Cambridge – Used a number of times in history and notable holders include Queen Mary’s grandfather. I can see the Queen enjoying that connection – she was very close to her grandmother. Also it was given to the future George II when his father was heir to the throne so has history of serving a King in waiting.
· Duke of Sussex – Much of the clever money seems to be on this one; but then everyone thought Edward was going to get it as well. It would make as much sense as any other title, but personally I hope the Queen doesn’t go ‘home counties’ with the title. It’s just not that interesting.
· Duke of Windsor – I would eat my hat if the Queen chooses this title (I’d have to buy a hat first though). As many of you will know, this was the title given to the Queen’s disgraced uncle after he abandoned the throne. This would make Kate, as Duchess, intrinsically linked with Wallis Simpson, something I really can’t see the Queen going for.
· Duke of Strathearn – Never before a title by itself but has been given out on three separate occasions as part of a package deal with Cumberland, Kent and Connaught. Princes often used to get two Dukedoms from different countries within the Union to emphasise the fact that we’re one big happy and united country. Given William and Kate met in Scotland, lots of people think this could be a go-er.
There are however a three other theories, two mine and one reported in the Daily Telegraph (and indeed mentioned on this blog):
· No title given – there is a theory that the groom wants to remain ‘Prince William of Wales’ and for his bride to become ‘Princess Catherine of Wales.’ As previously mentioned many times on this blog, most people believe this would require special permission from the Queen as current practise would have her become ‘Princess William of Wales’ if he receives no other title.
· Duke-in-waiting – We were all flabbergasted when Prince Edward was made Earl of Wessex rather than given a Dukedom, but it was done so on the proviso that he would one day become Duke of Edinburgh. Well, William of course will one day become a Duke – he becomes Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay the second his father succeeds the throne – so perhaps the Queen will just give him an Earldom while he waits.
· Father’s subsidiary – Many of you may know this already, but the eldest son of a non-royal Duke uses one of his father’s lower titles as a courtesy title. Why couldn’t William do the same? After all, it would sound quite romantic if Kate was the Countess of Chester. Now before you all go crazy, I realise that there’s no precedent for this; but there’s no precedent for the wife of the Prince of Wales styling herself as Duchess of Cornwall either. Anything could happen.
So…which of these is likely to happen? Unless we crawl inside the Queen’s brain we just don’t know. I’d be beside myself with shock if they go for Windsor and surprised if they choose Clarence. But at the end of the day, it’s a decision for one person, and one person only. Rock on Friday…